Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Apakah Bloom Taxonomy itu?

Webster Dictionary : A classification system (a taxonomy) of education objectives.
Lebih jauh tentang Bloom :
Bloom Taxonomy dikembangkan oleh Benjamin Bloom tahun 1950-an dan selama itu telah diaplikasi dan dikembangkan di kelas2 dalam metodologi pemelajaran sehari-hari. Bloom Taxonomy mengandung tingkatan2 dalam berpikir (thinking skills) dari mulai yang paling dasar hingga ke tingkat yang paling kompleks dalam level berpikir. Tahun 1990-an Lorin Anderson (eks siswa Bloom) memperbaiki teori Bloom Taxonomy hingga seperti Bloom Taxonomy yang kita kenal sekarang.
Aplikasi Bloom Taxonomy dalam kelas khususnya dalam mata pelajaran yang kita ajarkan ke siswa umumnya mengarah kepada pertanyaan2 sebelum kita memulai pelajaran, selama pelajaran berlangsung, atau setelah pelajaran sebagai bahan refleksi dari apa yang sudah kita pelajari. (Saya menyebutnya dengan "essential questions") Bidang yang dikembangkan oleh Bloom adalah: Kognitif, Afektif, Psycomotorik. Yang akan saya bahas di sini adalah bidang kognitifnya.
(Thinking Skill Levels)
Level berpikir menurut Bloom terdiri dari:
1) Knowledge/Remembering
Fase Dasar, sebatas tahu pertanyaan seperti what happen, how many, who, can you, which is true/false, where, with whom? menggunakan kata kerja al: tell, list, describe, relate, locate, write, find, state, name.
2) Comprehension / Understanding
Fase Mengerti *pertanyaan seperti: can you write in your own words? what do you think..? can you distinguish. .? what differences exist between..? can you provide a definition.. ?* explain, interpret, outline, discuss, distinguish, predict, restate, translate, compare, describe.
3) Application / Applying
Kemampuan Mengaplikasi *pertanyaan seperti can you group..? what factors..? what question would you ask for? would this information be useful? what can be developed?* solve, show, use, illustrate, construct, complete, examine, classify.
4) Analysis / Analysing
Kemampuan Menganalisis *which events? what might the ending have been? why did.. changes occur? how is... similar to? how can you compare...to..? what was the turning point?what was the problem?* analyse, distinguish, examine, compare, contrast, investigate, categorise, identify, separate.
5) Syntesis / Creating
Kemampuan Mencipta *how can you design..? why not compose a song about? how would you deal? how many ways? can you develop?* create, invent, compose, predict, plan, construct, design, imagine, propose, devise, formulating
6) Evaluation / Evaluating
Kemampuan Mengevaluasi *is there a better solution..?, how can you defense your position? Do you think ...is good? how would you have handled..? how effective..? *judge, select, choose, decide, justify, debate, verify, argue, recommend, assess, discuss, rate, prioritise, determine.
Dari level2 di atas, saya mengembangkannya di kelas seperti ini:
Saya berikan teks (variatif) misalnya tentang Timun Emas (Semua tahu cerita ini kan?)(sebelumnya saya translate dulu ceritanya ke dalam bahasa Inggris). Sebelumnya saya tanya dulu apakah mereka sudah pernah dengar cerita tersebut. (biasanya kalau anak SD pasti langsung terjadi diskusi seru, tetapi anak2 yang sudah besar seperti SMP/A mereka cuma bilang sudah/belum).
Saya tidak habis akal, pasti langsung saya tanya macam2 seperti apa cerita Indonesia yang sudah dibaca dll..). Anak2 saya minta baca (silent reading). Kemudian saya mulai tanya lagi mereka dari mulai pertanyaan level knowledge, comprehension, kemudian diskusi. Setelah itu saya akan minta anak2 mengerjakan worksheet yang di dalamnya terdapat pertanyaan seperti:
a) Remembering : Recalling Specific InformationWhat did the widow wish for? why did the widow call her daughter Timun Mas? what did the wise man give the widow?
b) Understanding : Making sense of what you are seeing What was the story about? What did the story tell us? The widow has been "yearning" for a child. What does "yearning" mean? what kind of woman was the widow?
c) Applying : What can you do with the knowledge you have? Draw a picture of the wise man giving widow the presents Draw a cartoon strip showing the giant chasing Timun Mas Show through actions how Timun Mas ran away from the giant.
d) Analising : Breaking down into components partswhy did the widow accept the hard conditions set by the giant? compare the widow with your motherwhy has the story of Timun Mas been told to children for many years Which one was effective, throwing the salt or needles?Why do you think it's effective?
e) Evaluating : Making judgments and values of ideas and materials do you think the widow was wise to accept the coditions set by the giant? This is good story to tell children. Do you agree? Explain why Hou would you have felt if you were Timun Mas?
f) Creating : Putting the parts together in a new way Choose two other "things" Timun Mas could have thrown at the giant and say how they could have been successful. What could have happened if the wise man had not given the widow the "things"? Would it have made any differences if the daughter was not beautiful? Design a record, book or magazine about the story Sell an idea to save Timun Mas from the giant Create a new product about Timun Mas. Design a marketing campaign.
Sewaktu saya mengajar SD beberapa tahun lalu saya aplikasikan Bloom Taxonomy ini untuk mata pelajaran lain seperti Matematika, IPS dan IPA selain Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Indonesia.
Anak2 senang.
Semoga bermanfaat.
Nina
Diposkan oleh fery di 01:10

1 comment:

affandy said...

terimakasih atas pencerahannya... so clear..and easy to understand...
thumbs up..